Israel is God’s chosen people. It is the only sovereign Jewish state in the entire world.
That answer often leads to another question: “Chosen for what?”
Israel is the vessel through whom God chose to reveal Himself to the world. They are His covenant people chosen to reveal His person, His ways, His covenants, His glory, and His redemption to all mankind. That purpose has never changed. However, the manner in which it took place is perhaps different than expected. Many of God’s glories were revealed to the world through Israel’s miraculous victories over her enemies, and even Israel’s sinful backsliding and God’s subsequent judgments against her. Israel’s blessings, her hardships, and even the miraculous covenant prophecies that have come to pass (such as Christ’s birth, death and resurrection) are all testaments to God’s faithfulness to His people and His omnipotent miraculous power.
God’s covenant promise to Abraham was that He would bless those who blessed him, and curse those who cursed him. That is no trite matter. Israel is the chosen people through whom God’s blessing flows to all nations — and that blessing is ultimately realized in the gift of God’s one and only Son, Christ Jesus. Christ Jesus established a covenant blessing for all who believe on Him as their LORD and Messiah. Jesus made it plain that salvation is of the Jews. He is the only One by whom all men must be saved.
Furthermore, Israel is important because it is this nation upon which the spiritual axis of the world turns. We can discern God’s timeline simply by looking at Israel. They are the “apple of God’s eye” and the “divine clock” by which this age is measured. Israel is His “peculiar treasure” with whom He is forever bound in covenant. He will never leave or forsake His covenant people, Israel. The day will come when Israel as a nation will be saved, but only once the fullness of the Gentiles has been reaped. Because of God’s choosing upon Israel, and His covenant promises to His people, we can know and understand with surety what God is doing in the world when we behold her in our own eye as well.
Israel is a nation who is beholden to God by His everlasting love and eternal covenant. And therefore, every nation is beholden to Israel if His blessing is to be bestowed upon them also.